Only non-lethal weapons should be used by internal police forces.
The only argument I have heard is that they, non-lethal weapons, can be lethal also. Which is true. Never the less, they are much less lethal then lethal weapons. 100% chance of death by a lethal weapon, vs. 1% chance of death by a non-lethal weapon. If asked which one would you choose to be shot at you?
I don’t have metrics on deaths by non-lethal or lethal weapons. But, a chance of 50% lethality or less, from a non-lethal weapons, versa 50% or more lethality, from lethal weapons means lives saved!
For the military and intelligence operations where one side only has lethal weapons.
A two tier assault method should be used. With the primary weapons and people first in, being non-lethal. Take out everyone possible in the first 1-30 seconds. 2nd line of Offense would either have additional non-lethal or lethal weapons and personal that only task is to target and take out any hostile that aims a lethal weapon towards our personal. 3rd line would have lethal weapons, with the same mission as line 2. The number of people and type of weapons used in the 2nd and 3rd line would be determined by the number of hostiles. The first line must be maintained, and at full personel at all times of the operations during a successful operation. Mission planners should plan for 3 times the number of hostles to be in the 1st line. 3 times is a minimum, 5, 10 or 20 times the personal is better.
Most if not all hostage or intelligence situations need to also use a similar method.
Beat Cops will be punished if they pull a lethal weapon before a non-lethal one if they are the first to attack. They can use their own judgement for defense.
Charm is favored over intimidation. Knowledge and closeness to the good people, is encouraged. You should know everyone in you beat of the city, and be able to shake hands with them.